The genomics of primary prostate cancer differ from those of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We studied genomic aberrations in primary prostate cancer biopsies from patients who developed mCRPC, also studying matching, same-patient, diagnostic, and mCRPC biopsies following treatment. We profiled 470 treatment-naive prostate cancer diagnostic biopsies and, for 61 cases, mCRPC biopsies, using targeted and low-pass whole-genome sequencing (n = 52). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize mutation and copy number profile. Prevalence was compared using Fisher’s exact test. Survival correlations were studied using log-rank test. TP53 (27%) and PTEN (12%) and DDR gene defects (BRCA2 7%; CDK12 5%; ATM 4%) were commonly detected. TP53, BRCA2, and CDK12 mutations were markedly more common than described in the TCGA cohort. Patients with RB1 loss in the primary tumor had a worse prognosis. Among 61 men with matched hormone-naive and mCRPC biopsies, differences were identified in AR, TP53, RB1, and PI3K/AKT mutational status between same-patient samples. In conclusion, the genomics of diagnostic prostatic biopsies acquired from men who develop mCRPC differ from those of the nonlethal primary prostatic cancers. RB1/TP53/AR aberrations are enriched in later stages, but the prevalence of DDR defects in diagnostic samples is similar to mCRPC.
Joaquin Mateo, George Seed, Claudia Bertan, Pasquale Rescigno, David Dolling, Ines Figueiredo, Susana Miranda, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Bora Gurel, Matthew Clarke, Mark Atkin, Rob Chandler, Carlo Messina, Semini Sumanasuriya, Diletta Bianchini, Maialen Barrero, Antonella Petermolo, Zafeiris Zafeirou, Mariane Fontes, Raquel Perez-Lopez, Nina Tunariu, Ben Fulton, Robert Jones, Ursula McGovern, Christy Ralph, Mohini Varughese, Omi Parikh, Suneil Jain, Tony Elliott, Shahneen Sandhu, Nuria Porta, Emma Hall, Wei Yuan, Suzanne Carreira, Johann S. de Bono
Deficits in social interaction (SI) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, treatments for social deficits are notably lacking. Elucidating brain circuits and neuromodulatory signaling systems that regulate sociability could facilitate a deeper understanding of ASD pathophysiology and reveal novel treatments for ASDs. Here we found that in vivo optogenetic activation of the basolateral amygdala–nucleus accumbens (BLA-NAc) glutamatergic circuit reduced SI and increased social avoidance in mice. Furthermore, we found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) endocannabinoid signaling reduced BLA-NAc glutamatergic activity and that pharmacological 2-AG augmentation via administration of JZL184, a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, blocked SI deficits associated with in vivo BLA-NAc stimulation. Additionally, optogenetic inhibition of the BLA-NAc circuit markedly increased SI in the Shank3B–/– mouse, an ASD model with substantial SI impairment, without affecting SI in WT mice. Finally, we demonstrated that JZL184 delivered systemically or directly to the NAc also normalized SI deficits in Shank3B–/– mice, while ex vivo JZL184 application corrected aberrant NAc excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and reduced BLA-NAc–elicited feed-forward inhibition of NAc neurons in Shank3B–/– mice. These data reveal circuit-level and neuromodulatory mechanisms regulating social function relevant to ASDs and suggest 2-AG augmentation could reduce social deficits via modulation of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the NAc.
Oakleigh M. Folkes, Rita Báldi, Veronika Kondev, David J. Marcus, Nolan D. Hartley, Brandon D. Turner, Jade K. Ayers, Jordan J. Baechle, Maya P. Misra, Megan Altemus, Carrie A. Grueter, Brad A. Grueter, Sachin Patel
Aberrant expression of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin-43 (Cx43) has been suggested as playing a role in the development of cardiac disease in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, a mechanistic understanding of this association is lacking. Here, we identified a reduction of phosphorylation of Cx43 serines S325/S328/S330 in human and mouse DMD hearts. We hypothesized that hypophosphorylation of Cx43 serine-triplet triggers pathological Cx43 redistribution to the lateral sides of cardiomyocytes (remodeling). Therefore, we generated knockin mdx mice in which the Cx43 serine-triplet was replaced with either phospho-mimicking glutamic acids (mdxS3E) or nonphosphorylatable alanines (mdxS3A). The mdxS3E, but not mdxS3A, mice were resistant to Cx43 remodeling, with a corresponding reduction of Cx43 hemichannel activity. MdxS3E cardiomyocytes displayed improved intracellular Ca2+ signaling and a reduction of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)/ROS production. Furthermore, mdxS3E mice were protected against inducible arrhythmias, related lethality, and the development of cardiomyopathy. Inhibition of microtubule polymerization by colchicine reduced both NOX2/ROS and oxidized CaMKII, increased S325/S328/S330 phosphorylation, and prevented Cx43 remodeling in mdx hearts. Together, these results demonstrate a mechanism of dystrophic Cx43 remodeling and suggest that targeting Cx43 may be a therapeutic strategy for preventing heart dysfunction and arrhythmias in DMD patients.
Eric Himelman, Mauricio A. Lillo, Julie Nouet, J. Patrick Gonzalez, Qingshi Zhao, Lai-Hua Xie, Hong Li, Tong Liu, Xander H.T. Wehrens, Paul D. Lampe, Glenn I. Fishman, Natalia Shirokova, Jorge E. Contreras, Diego Fraidenraich
The incidence of human papillomavirus–positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has surpassed that of cervical cancer and is projected to increase rapidly until 2060. The coevolution of HPV with transforming epithelial cells leads to the shutdown of host immune detection. Targeting proximal viral nucleic acid–sensing machinery is an evolutionarily conserved strategy among viruses to enable immune evasion. However, E7 from the dominant HPV subtype 16 in HNSCC shares low homology with HPV18 E7, which was shown to inhibit the STING DNA-sensing pathway. The mechanisms by which HPV16 suppresses STING remain unknown. Recently, we characterized the role of the STING/type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway in maintaining immunogenicity of HNSCC in mouse models. Here we extended those findings into the clinical domain using tissue microarrays and machine learning–enhanced profiling of STING signatures with immune subsets. We additionally showed that HPV16 E7 uses mechanisms distinct from those used by HPV18 E7 to antagonize the STING pathway. We identified NLRX1 as a critical intermediary partner to facilitate HPV16 E7–potentiated STING turnover. The depletion of NLRX1 resulted in significantly improved IFN-I–dependent T cell infiltration profiles and tumor control. Overall, we discovered a unique HPV16 viral strategy to thwart host innate immune detection that can be further exploited to restore cancer immunogenicity.
Xiaobo Luo, Christopher R. Donnelly, Wang Gong, Blake R. Heath, Yuning Hao, Lorenza A. Donnelly, Toktam Moghbeli, Yee Sun Tan, Xin Lin, Emily Bellile, Benjamin A. Kansy, Thomas E. Carey, J. Chad Brenner, Lei Cheng, Peter J. Polverini, Meredith A. Morgan, Haitao Wen, Mark E. Prince, Robert L. Ferris, Yuying Xie, Simon Young, Gregory T. Wolf, Qianming Chen, Yu L. Lei
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes symmetric dimethylation (SDM) of arginine, a posttranslational modification involved in oncogenesis and embryonic development. However, the role and mechanisms by which PRMT5 modulates Th cell polarization and autoimmune disease have not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that PRMT5 promoted SREBP1 SDM and the induction of cholesterol biosynthetic pathway enzymes that produce retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR) agonists that activate RORγt. Specific loss of PRMT5 in the CD4+ Th cell compartment suppressed Th17 differentiation and protected mice from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We also found that PRMT5 controlled thymic and peripheral homeostasis in the CD4+ Th cell life cycle and invariant NK (iNK) T cell development and CD8+ T cell maintenance. This work demonstrates that PRMT5 expression in recently activated T cells is necessary for the cholesterol biosynthesis metabolic gene expression program that generates RORγt agonistic activity and promotes Th17 differentiation and EAE. These results point to Th PRMT5 and its downstream cholesterol biosynthesis pathway as promising therapeutic targets in Th17-mediated diseases.
Lindsay M. Webb, Shouvonik Sengupta, Claudia Edell, Zayda L. Piedra-Quintero, Stephanie A. Amici, Janiret Narvaez Miranda, Makenzie Bevins, Austin Kennemer, Georgios Laliotis, Philip N. Tsichlis, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano
Loss of androgen receptor (AR) signaling dependence occurs in approximately 15%–20% of advanced treatment-resistant prostate cancers, and this may manifest clinically as transformation from a prostate adenocarcinoma histology to a castration-resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer (CRPC-NE). The diagnosis of CRPC-NE currently relies on a metastatic tumor biopsy, which is invasive for patients and sometimes challenging to diagnose due to morphologic heterogeneity. By studying whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) and of matched metastatic tumor biopsies from patients with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma and CRPC-NE, we identified CRPC-NE features detectable in the circulation. Overall, there was markedly higher concordance between cfDNA and biopsy tissue genomic alterations in patients with CRPC-NE compared with castration-resistant adenocarcinoma, supporting greater intraindividual genomic consistency across metastases. Allele-specific copy number and serial sampling analyses allowed for the detection and tracking of clonal and subclonal tumor cell populations. cfDNA methylation was indicative of circulating tumor content fraction, reflective of methylation patterns observed in biopsy tissues, and was capable of detecting CRPC-NE–associated epigenetic changes (e.g., hypermethylation of ASXL3 and SPDEF; hypomethylation of INSM1 and CDH2). A targeted set combining genomic (TP53, RB1, CYLD, AR) and epigenomic (hypo- and hypermethylation of 20 differential sites) alterations applied to ctDNA was capable of identifying patients with CRPC-NE.
Himisha Beltran, Alessandro Romanel, Vincenza Conteduca, Nicola Casiraghi, Michael Sigouros, Gian Marco Franceschini, Francesco Orlando, Tarcisio Fedrizzi, Sheng-Yu Ku, Emma Dann, Alicia Alonso, Juan Miguel Mosquera, Andrea Sboner, Jenny Xiang, Olivier Elemento, David M. Nanus, Scott T. Tagawa, Matteo Benelli, Francesca Demichelis
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) attrition is considered the key event underlying progressive BM failure (BMF) in Fanconi anemia (FA), the most frequent inherited BMF disorder in humans. However, despite major advances, how the cellular, biochemical, and molecular alterations reported in FA lead to HSC exhaustion remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated in human and mouse cells that loss-of-function of FANCA or FANCC, products of 2 genes affecting more than 80% of FA patients worldwide, is associated with constitutive expression of the transcription factor microphthalmia (MiTF) through the cooperative, unscheduled activation of several stress-signaling pathways, including the SMAD2/3, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and AKT cascades. We validated the unrestrained Mitf expression downstream of p38 in Fanca–/– mice, which display hallmarks of hematopoietic stress, including loss of HSC quiescence, DNA damage accumulation in HSCs, and reduced HSC repopulation capacity. Importantly, we demonstrated that shRNA-mediated downregulation of Mitf expression or inhibition of p38 signaling rescued HSC quiescence and prevented DNA damage accumulation. Our data support the hypothesis that HSC attrition in FA is the consequence of defects in the DNA-damage response combined with chronic activation of otherwise transiently activated signaling pathways, which jointly prevent the recovery of HSC quiescence.
Alessia Oppezzo, Julie Bourseguin, Emilie Renaud, Patrycja Pawlikowska, Filippo Rosselli
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can affect the central nervous system (CNS). The role of microglia in CNS-GVHD remains undefined. In agreement with microglia activation, we found that profound morphological changes and MHC-II and CD80 upregulation occurred upon GVHD induction. RNA sequencing–based analysis of purified microglia obtained from mice with CNS-GVHD revealed TNF upregulation. Selective TNF gene deletion in microglia of Cx3cr1creER Tnffl/– mice reduced MHC-II expression and decreased CNS T cell infiltrates and VCAM-1+ endothelial cells. GVHD increased microglia TGF-β–activated kinase-1 (TAK1) activation and NF-κB/p38 MAPK signaling. Selective Tak1 deletion in microglia using Cx3cr1creER Tak1fl/fl– mice resulted in reduced TNF production and microglial MHC-II and improved neurocognitive activity. Pharmacological TAK1 inhibition reduced TNF production and MHC-II expression by microglia, Th1 and Th17 T cell infiltrates, and VCAM-1+ endothelial cells and improved neurocognitive activity, without blocking graft-versus-leukemia effects. Consistent with these findings in mice, we observed increased activation and TNF production of microglia in the CNS of GVHD patients. In summary, we prove a role for microglia in CNS-GVHD, identify the TAK1/TNF/MHC-II axis as a mediator of CNS-GVHD, and provide a TAK1 inhibitor–based approach against GVHD-induced neurotoxicity.
Nimitha R. Mathew, Janaki M. Vinnakota, Petya Apostolova, Daniel Erny, Shaimaa Hamarsheh, Geoffroy Andrieux, Jung-Seok Kim, Kathrin Hanke, Tobias Goldmann, Louise Chappell-Maor, Nadia El-Khawanky, Gabriele Ihorst, Dominik Schmidt, Justus Duyster, Jürgen Finke, Thomas Blank, Melanie Boerries, Bruce R. Blazar, Steffen Jung, Marco Prinz, Robert Zeiser
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that controls blood phosphate levels by increasing renal phosphate excretion and reducing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D] production. Disorders of FGF23 homeostasis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but a fundamental understanding of what regulates FGF23 production is lacking. Because the kidney is the major end organ of FGF23 action, we hypothesized that it releases a factor that regulates FGF23 synthesis. Using aptamer-based proteomics and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–based (LC-MS–based) metabolomics, we profiled more than 1600 molecules in renal venous plasma obtained from human subjects. Renal vein glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) had the strongest correlation with circulating FGF23. In mice, exogenous G-3-P stimulated bone and bone marrow FGF23 production through local G-3-P acyltransferase–mediated (GPAT-mediated) lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) synthesis. Further, the stimulatory effect of G-3-P and LPA on FGF23 required LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1). Acute kidney injury (AKI), which increases FGF23 levels, rapidly increased circulating G-3-P in humans and mice, and the effect of AKI on FGF23 was abrogated by GPAT inhibition or Lpar1 deletion. Together, our findings establish a role for kidney-derived G-3-P in mineral metabolism and outline potential targets to modulate FGF23 production during kidney injury.
Petra Simic, Wondong Kim, Wen Zhou, Kerry A. Pierce, Wenhan Chang, David B. Sykes, Najihah B. Aziz, Sammy Elmariah, Debby Ngo, Paola Divieti Pajevic, Nicolas Govea, Bryan R. Kestenbaum, Ian H. de Boer, Zhiqiang Cheng, Marta Christov, Jerold Chun, David E. Leaf, Sushrut S. Waikar, Andrew M. Tager, Robert E. Gerszten, Ravi I. Thadhani, Clary B. Clish, Harald Jüppner, Marc N. Wein, Eugene P. Rhee
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus capable of causing a severe and often debilitating rheumatic syndrome in humans. CHIKV replicates in a wide variety of cell types in mammals, which has made attributing pathologic outcomes to replication at specific sites difficult. To assess the contribution of CHIKV replication in skeletal muscle cells to pathogenesis, we engineered a CHIKV strain exhibiting restricted replication in these cells via incorporation of target sequences for skeletal muscle cell–specific miR-206. This virus, which we term SKE, displayed diminished replication in skeletal muscle cells in a mouse model of CHIKV disease. Mice infected with SKE developed less severe disease signs, including diminished swelling in the inoculated foot and less necrosis and inflammation in the interosseous muscles. SKE infection was associated with diminished infiltration of T cells into the interosseous muscle as well as decreased production of Il1b, Il6, Ip10, and Tnfa transcripts. Importantly, blockade of the IL-6 receptor led to diminished swelling of a control CHIKV strain capable of replication in skeletal muscle, reducing swelling to levels observed in mice infected with SKE. These data implicate replication in skeletal muscle cells and release of IL-6 as important mediators of CHIKV disease.
Anthony J. Lentscher, Mary K. McCarthy, Nicholas A. May, Bennett J. Davenport, Stephanie A. Montgomery, Krishnan Raghunathan, Nicole McAllister, Laurie A. Silva, Thomas E. Morrison, Terence S. Dermody
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